Definition: A transducer is a device that changes one form of energy into another. For example, a speaker changes electrical energy from an amplifier into mechanical energy or sound waves. The electrical energy in the amp causes the speaker cone to move in and out creating air waves that our ears perceive as sound. A microphone is the reverse of a speaker. It takes mechanical energy in the form of sound waves from a human voice and turns it into electrical energy. Another example is a phono cartridge, which turns the small grooves in a record into electrical signals that make music.
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A speaker is a transducer that changes electrical energy into mechanical energy.